BioQUEST home page ESTEEM Home Math Association of American home
Balancing Chemical Equations Using Matrix Algebra

This excel workbook introduces using matrix algebra to balance chemical reactions. The user can follow several instructional buttons and examples to learn how to set up the required matrices and how to interpret the results. The workbook allows the user to set up their own matrices for chemical reactions involving 2-7 elements. Several sample equations are available for the user to select. See the tutorial for a more detailed description of the matrix algebra.


John R. Jungck, Beloit College
Jennifer A Spangenberg, Beloit College

Published by: BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium

OS: win98, win2000, winXP, os9

User Manuals and Curricular Materials
Popular Text Citations

Grimaldi RP. 1980. Balancing Chemical Reactions with Methods and Computer Assistance. Module 339. UMAP (Modules in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications).

Research Articles

Bottomley J. 1878. Method of indeterminate coefficients (algebraic method). J Chem News. 37:110.

Krishamurthy E V. 1978. General matrix methods for chemical equations. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. 9:323-328.

Herndon W C. 1997. On Balancing Chemical Equations: Past and Present. Journal of Chemical Education. 74: 1359-1362.

Brown J P, Brown L P, Redd R M. 1972. Matrix algebra method. Journal of Chemical Education. 49: 754.

Copley, George Novello. 1968. Linear algebra of chemical formulas and equations. Chemistry 41: 22-27.

Alberty, R. A. 1996. Calculation of biochemical net reactions and pathways by using matrix operations. Biophysical Journal 71:507-515.

Tutorial & Background materials

Chemical Equation Calculator©Witek Mozga

Jungck John R., Spangenberg Jennifer A () Balancing Chemical Equations Using Matrix Algebra. A module of the Biological ESTEEM Collection, published by the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium. URL: