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This workbook allows students to explore evolution over space and time using published data on the invasive plant Tamarix (salt cedar). The program plots the geographic location of samples representing Tamarix haplotypes of the user's choice, as well as calculating statistics that describe the samples' geographic distribution. Finally, GeoPhyl conducts a permutation test that allows the user to determine, both graphically and numerically, how well the observed data match a random geographic distribution.


Tony Weisstein, Truman State University

Published by: BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium

OS: all

User Manuals and Curricular Materials
Popular Text Citations

Humphries C.J. and Parenti L.R. 1999. Cladistic Biogeography 2nd Edition: Interpreting Patterns of Plant and Animal Distributions. Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K.

Research Articles

Wilson, Allan C. and Rebecca L. Cann. 1992. The Recent African Genesis of Humans. Scientific American 266:68-73.

Thorne, A. G.; Wolpoff, M. H. 1992. The Multiregional Evolution of Humans. Scientific American 266:76-83.

Bosch, D.; Oro, F.J.; Cantos; Zabala, M. 2000. Short-term effects of culling on the ecology and population dynamics of the yellow-legged gull. Journal of Applied Ecology 37:369.

Chabrzyk, G.; Coulson, J. C. 1976. Survival and Recruitment in the Herring Gull Larus argentatus. The Journal of Animal Ecology 45:187-203.

J. C. Coulson; N. Duncan; C. Thomas. 1982. Changes in the Breeding Biology of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Induced by Reduction in the Size and Density of the Colony. The Journal of Animal Ecology 51:739-756.

Duncan, N. 1978. The Effects of Culling Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) on Recruitment and Population Dynamics. The Journal of Applied Ecology 3:697-713.

Crisci J.V. 2001. The voice of historical biogeography. Journal of Biogeography 28: 157-168.

S. Wanless; M. P. Harris; J. Calladine; P. Rothery. 1996. Modelling Responses of Herring Gull and Lesser Black Backed Gull Populations to Reduction of Reproductive Output: Implications for Control Measures. The Journal of Applied Ecology 33:1420-1432.

Gaskin J.F. and Schaal B.A. 2002. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 11256-11259.

Schaal B.A., Gaskin J.F., and Caicedo A.L. 2003. Phylogeography, haplotype trees, and invasive plant species. Journal of Heredity 94: 197-204.

Templeton A.R., Routman E., and Philips C.A. 1995. Separating population structure from population history: a cladistic analysis of the geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Genetics 140: 767-782.

Education Research & Pedagogical Materials

BEDROCK Project. 2004. A Tamarix Problem Space: Invasive Species and Phylogeography.

Stanely, E. D.; Waterman, M. 2006. Investigative Case Based Learning (ICBL). Case 8: Back to the Bay.

Data Sources

Eizirik, E.; Yuhki, N. Johnson, W. E.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Hannah, S. S.; O’Brien, S. J. 2003. Molecular genetics and evolution of melanism in the cat family. Current Biology 4:448-53.

Weisstein Tony () GeoPhyl. A module of the Biological ESTEEM Collection, published by the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium. URL: