BEN      BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium       Numbers Count Project   SELECTION project
 
Trees from the Seas
 
 
Authors          Audiences          Overview           Materials          Resources           Future Directions
 

 


Authors


Marsha Timmerman
La Salle University


Linda Weinland
Edison College


William Bromer
University of St. Francis


K. Rebecca Thomas
Montgomery College

 
   
 


Possible Audiences:

Introductory College Biology, Evolution, Bioinformatics, High School AP Biology  

 
 


Brief Overview:

This project provides a case study introducing students to patterns of relationships and evolution among economically important dinoflagellates, the causative agents of red tides. Using nucleotide sequences, students build a tree of relationships among dinoflagellate taxa. They use their tree (along with phylogenetic hypotheses derived from the literature) to explore the evolution of morphological and/or ecological characters in dinoflagellates. As broader applications, students learn to compare and evaluate hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. Additionally, because the case study focuses on dinoflagellates that have evolved toxicity, it can be used to further explore the biological and economic impacts of red tides.  

 
   
 


Project Materials:

The DinoflagelaltesAll2 is a file that we used in MESQUITE to analyze trees, nucleotides and morphological data. The file DNAsequences4ClustalWTEXT1.txt is a text file that contains the nucleotide sequences of the SSUrRNA of 15 dinoflagellate species from 13 genera.  

 
 


Resources and References:

Resources

Anderson, DM. 2007. The Harmful Algae Page, http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/ Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

Anderson, DM. 2007. Human illness associated with harmful algae. http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/illness/illness.html Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

Brevetoxin B http://www.ncl.ox.ac.uk/quicktime/brevetoxin.html

Burkholder, JM; Glasgow, HB; Deamer-Melia, NJ; Springer, J; Parrow, MW; Zhang, C; and Cancellieri PJ. 2001. Species of the toxic Pfiesteria complex, and the importance of functional type in data interpretation. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:667-679.

Clamp, M.; Cuff, J.; Searle, SM; and Barton, GJ. 2004. The Jalview Java Alignment Editor. Bioinformatics 20:426-7

Images

www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/.../cell_covering.html

www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artsep01/dinof.html

www.mdsg.umd.edu/MarineNotes/Jul-Aug97/side1.html

www.serc.si.edu/.../dinoflagellates/gsang.jsp

chbr.noaa.gov/pmn/resfspfiesteria.htm

www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagmm.html

www.lifeinfreshwater.org.uk/.../Pollution.htm

www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/.../Biotoxins/PSP_e.htm

daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/.../12_classics_blooms.shtml

European Bioinformatics Institute
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/

EBI Tools: ClustalW
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/

Faust, MA and Gulledge RA. 2002. Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates,
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/projects/dinoflag/index.htm Smithsonian Institution

Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. Regional red tide summaries and status reports
http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=9670

GenBank http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/

Hackett, JD; Anderson, DM; Erdner, DL; and Bhattacharya, D. 2004. Dinoflagellates: A remarkable evolutionary experiment. Am J Bot 91:1523-34.

Jalview A Multialignment Editor http://www.jalview.org/

Maddison, WP and Madison, DR. 2006. Mesquite: A Modular System for Evolutionary Analysis, version 1.12 http://mesquiteproject.org/mesquite/mesquite.html

Murray, S; Jorgensen, MF; Ho SYW; Patterson DJ; and Jermiin LS. 2005. Improving the analysis of dinoflagellate phylogeny based on rDNA. Protist 156:269-286.

Saldarriaga, JF; McEwen, ML; Fast, NM; Taylor, FJR; and Keeling, PJ. 2003b. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:355-65.

Saxitoxin: Essential data http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Saxitoxin.html

Solutions to Avoid Red Tide (START) http://www.start1.com/

SDSC Biology Workbench http://workbench.sdsc.edu/

Vogelbein, WK; Lovko, VJ; Shields, JD; Reese, KS; Mason, PL; Haas, LW; and Walker, CC. 2002. Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion. Nature 418:967-70.

Yoon, SH; Hackett, JD; and Bhattacharya D. 2002. A single origin of the peridinin- and fucoxanthin- containing plastids in dinoflagellates through tertiary endosymbiosis. PNAS 99(18): 11724-11729

 

 
   
 


Future Directions:

  • Map and analyze LSU rRNA data.
  • Connect case more strongle with ecological and economic issues.
  • Find and analyze some dinoflagellate specific molecular data such as plastid sequneces, toxin production.
  • Apply this model to other economically important species.
 

 
 


Attachments


- DinoflagellatesAll2
- DNAsequences4ClustalWTEXT1.txt
- TreesFromSeas.ppt